Research Focus Area(s)
Animal Production Systems Engineering
This report describes the measurement methodologies and results of ammonia (NH3) emissions from two typical Tyson broiler production houses located in western Kentucky. During this study, comprised over 13 months and with six flocks per house, a total of 12 flocks of high quality emissions data were collected. Continuous measurement over a one-year period allowed for delineation of variations in emissions due to seasonal effects, animal growth cycles, and litter conditions. The study was led by Iowa State University (ISU), in collaboration with the University of Kentucky (UK). Data from this study add to and improve the national inventory on ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs), especially broiler houses in the southeastern United States.
The two broiler houses monitored in this study are designated as Tyson 1-5 or T1-5 and Tyson 3-3 or T3-3 in this report. The monitoring periods reported are 10/07/05 – 11/27/06 for T3-3 and 12/09/05 – 1/09/07 for T1-5. Note that ammonia monitoring began on 10/01/05 in both houses, but no birds were placed in T1-5 until 12/09/05, explaining the different emissions reporting periods. The ammonia emissions reported in this study are based on continuous measurements of ammonia concentration in the inlet and exhaust air and the corresponding mechanical ventilation rate at each broiler house. Two Mobile Air Emissions Monitoring Units (MAEMUs), housing state-of-the-art measurement equipment, calibration accessories, and data acquisition systems, were developed at Iowa State University and used for this monitoring project.
Prior to the initiation of monitoring, a series of performance tests were conducted to confirm that the monitoring systems were working as designed and to determine representative locations for air sampling points. An EPA Category 1 Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) – a substantial, 400-page document that outlines the methodologies for the project – was developed by the monitoring team. This Category 1 QAPP was reviewed and approved by EPA. In addition, the project underwent and passed two technical audits: a technical audit by Battelle personnel (contractors hired by EPA) confirming conformance of the project implementation with our QAPP, and an additional technical audit conducted by two nationally prominent agriculture air quality scientists.
Burns, Robert T.; Xin, Hongwei; Gates, Richard S.; Li, Hong; Hoff, Steven J.; Moody, Lara B.; Overhults, Douglas G.; and Earnest, John W., "Tyson Broiler Ammonia Emission Monitoring Project: Final Report" (2007). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers. 15.