The purpose of this investigation was to study some of the factors affecting the growth and the mechanical and physical properties of bismuth single crystals. The rate of crystallization and sample purity were of primary interest as variables in the crystallization runs. Crystal lattice orientation, crystal perfection and the testing conditions themselves were considered as variables in some of the studies of crystal properties. Three grades of bismuth were used containing 99.99%, 99. 999% and 99. 9999% bismuth respectively.
Slonaker, Robert E. Jr. and Smutz, Morton, "Factors affecting the growth and the mechanical and physical properties of bismuth single crystals" (1964). Ames Laboratory Technical Reports. 69.