Summary and Implications
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products improve passive immunity in neonates. Unfortunately, adverse reactions can occur. This study was designed to determine if physiological changes occurring after IVIG administration were the result of rapid infusion of large molecular weight molecules, or from a more complex mechanism resulting in histamine release. The IVIG was concentrated from bovine abattoir blood and contained approximately 35 g IgG/L. A dextran (75,000 MW) solution was prepared as a high molecular weight control that was similar in osmolarity to the IVIG. Holstein bull calves (n=15) under 1 wk of age were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control calves received 500 ml of 0.9% NaCl; dextran calves received 500 ml of dextran; IgG calves received 500 ml of IVIG. Treatments were rapidly administered (less than 5 min) intravenously via jugular catheter. Heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure were measured prior to treatment, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after start of infusion. Blood samples were obtained at the same sampling times, centrifuged, and the plasma immediately placed on ice for determination of histamine concentration using an enzyme immunoassay. Mean respiration rates were higher in calves treated with IVIG compared to calves in the other two groups at all time periods measured. Mean heart rates were lower in calves treated with IVIG compared to calves in the other groups through 45 min. Calves treated with dextran had higher mean heart rates than calves on the control treatment from 10 min through 30 min. Mean blood pressure tended to be higher in calves treated with IVIG compared to calves on the control treatment at 1 min, however, there were no differences between groups at any other time period. Mean histamine concentrations were higher in calves treated with IVIG compared to calves on the control treatment at 1 min, but were not different at any other time period. These data indicate that adverse reactions to IVIG in calves are not mediated by high molecular weight molecules or by histamine release.
Iowa State University
Hammer, Carrie; Tyler, Howard; Roth, James A.; and Quigley, James D. III
"Characterization of Reactions to Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Neonatal Calves,"
Animal Industry Report:
AS 650, ASL R1907.
Available at: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/ans_air/vol650/iss1/66