Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and economically significant viral disease of pigs. The severity of the illness varies with the strain of the virus, the age of the pig, and the immune status of the herd. Acute infections, which are caused by highly virulent isolates and have a high mortality rate in naive herds, are likely to be diagnosed rapidly. However, infections with less virulent isolates can be more difficult to recognize, particularly in older pigs. The range of clinical signs and similarity to other diseases can make classical swine fever challenging to diagnose.
Although classical swine fever was once widespread, many countries have eradicated this disease from domesticated swine. Reintroduction of the virus can be devastating. In 1997-1998, an outbreak in the Netherlands spread to involve more than 400 herds and cost $2.3 billion to eradicate. Approximately 12 million pigs were killed, some in eradication efforts but most for welfare reasons associated with the epidemic. Other European counties have also experienced outbreaks, and the ongoing presence of the virus among wild boar presents a risk of reintroduction to domesticated swine. North America is also at risk for the reintroduction of classical swine fever, which is still endemic in South and Central America.
Iowa State University
Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health, "Classical Swine Fever" (2015). Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets. 37.