15. Failure Modes, Defect Characterization, and Accept/Reject Criteria
The size and material content of Fe and Si inclusions in Si3N4 have been measured by means of pulse-echo scattering of elastic waves in the frequency range 5 to 100 MHz. The inclusions were of 100 μm and 400 μm nominal diameters and were located 3 mm deep in the Si3N4. The electronic noise was reduced by signal averaging and, in some cases, the noise due to grain scattering was reduced by averaging over transducer position. The scattering amplitude A(ω) and the impulse function R(t) were obtained by a desensitized deconvolution of the reference waveform obtained by reflecting the transmitted pulse from the back surface of the sample in a defect-free region. Comparison of theory and experiment are given for A(ω) and estimates of flaw size and material content are presented.
Ahlberg, L. A.; Elsley, Richard K.; Graham, Lloyd J.; and Richardson, John M., "Long Wave Ultrasonic Characterization of Inclusions in Silicon Nitride" (1980). Proceedings of the DARPA/AFML Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, July 1978–September 1979. 96.