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In early August 2014, the municipality of Toledo, OH (USA) issued a ‘do not drink’ advisory on their water supply directly affecting over 400,000 residential customers and hundreds of businesses (Wilson, 2014). This order was attributable to levels of microcystin, a potent liver toxin, which rose to 2.5 mg L1 in finished drinking water. The Toledo crisis afforded an opportunity to bring together scientists from around the world to share ideas regarding factors that contribute to bloom formation and toxigenicity, bloom and toxin detection as well as prevention and remediation of bloom events. These discussions took place at an NSF- and NOAA-sponsored workshop at Bowling Green State University on April 13 and 14, 2015. In all, more than 100 attendees from six countries and 15 US states gathered together to share their perspectives. The purpose of this review is to present the consensus summary of these issues that emerged from discussions at the Workshop. As additional reports in this special issue provide detailed reviews on many major CHAB species, this paper focuses on the general themes common to all blooms, such as bloom detection, modeling, nutrient loading, and strategies to reduce nutrients.
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.
Bullerjahn, George S.; McKay, Robert M.; Davis, Timothy W.; Baker, David B.; Boyer, Gregory L.; D'Anglada, Leslie V.; Doucette, Gregory J.; Ho, Jeff C.; Irwin, Elena G.; Kling, Catherine L.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Kurmayer, Rainer; Michalak, Anna M.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Otten, Timothy G.; Paerl, Hans W.; Qin, Boqiang; Sohngen, Brent L.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Visser, Petra M.; and Wilhelm, Steven W., "Global solutions to regional problems: Collecting global expertise to address the problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. A Lake Erie case study" (2016). Economics Publications. 133.