Nontariff Barriers

Campus Units

Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Economics

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Version

Submitted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics


S. Darlauf & L. Blume


Palgrave Macmillan LTD

First Page or Article ID Number


Last Page



Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.


This is a working paper published as “Nontariff Barriers,” in S. Darlauf & L. Blume, eds., The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition, Palgrave Macmillan LTD, 2008: 126-129.