Recently, a number of authors have constructed axiomatic defences of Borda's rule [2, 4, 8], In every case, it Is assumed that voters mark their ballots honestly, in accordance with their preferences. That this assumption may be unrealistic was known to Borda himself [ij. Elsewhere • [3, 5], it has been shpwn how Borda's rule can reward misrepresented pref erences on the part of individual voters. This result is in the same spirit as, but not a consequence of, the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem [6, 7], since Borda's rule allows ties. This is in marked contrast to Condorcet's rule, where such misrepresentation is not rewarded.
This paper was published in Public Choice, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp 43-50, Summer 1977
Gardner, Roy, "The Borda Game" (1976). Economic Staff Paper Series. 144.