As Buchanan noted in his original paper, the economic theory of clubs "allows us to move one step forward in closing the awesome Samuelson gap between the purely private and the purely public good." [3, p.l]. Although the theory applies only to goods from which nonpayers can be excluded, the step forward his analysis permits is large. An alternate exposition of the theory is presented in Richard and Peggy Musgrave's textbook [6, pp. 615-622]; and a graphic conden sation of their exposition was developed by Allen, Amacher, and Tollison [1, pp. 386-91].
Adams, Ron D. and Royer, Jeffrey S., "Income and Price Effects in an Alternate Exposition of the Theory of Clubs" (1976). Economic Staff Paper Series. 146.