Throughout the postwar period, the Brazilian economy has swung violently through phases which have been described first as the rise and the decline of import substitution, and then, after even more severe economic contraction and political counter-revolution, an explosion of growth known as the "Brazilian miracle." All during this period, Brazil has relied on its exchange markets and protective structure to ration its constricted import capacity among competing users. While other import-substituting countries have turned more exclusively to discretionary quotas and licensing...
Weisskoff, Richard, "Imports and Import Functions for Brazil, 1953-1970" (1979). Economic Staff Paper Series. 157.