Document Type

Article

Publication Date

6-2013

Journal or Book Title

International Journal of Pest Management

Volume

59

Issue

3

First Page

174

Last Page

179

DOI

10.1080/09670874.2013.807957

Abstract

Transmission of parasites and pathogens is generally positively density-dependent: as an insect population's density increases, the risk of an individual becoming attacked or infected also increases. In some insect species, individuals experiencing crowded conditions are more resistant to natural enemies than those experiencing low density conditions, and they are predicted to divert resources to increase resistance. This phenomenon is called density-dependent prophylaxis. Here, possible expression of prophylaxis in fifth-instar larvae of Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis, to biocontrol agents was investigated under rearing densities of 1, 10, and 30 larvae per jar (650 mL). Larvae reared at the moderate density and those reared in isolation displayed the greatest and lowest resistance, respectively, to an entomopathogenic fungus and a parasitoid. Moreover, larvae from the moderate density treatment exhibited elevated phenoloxidase, total haemocyte count and antibacterial activity in the haemolymph, whereas phenoloxidase levels in the midgut were not affected. The results suggest that larval rearing density significantly affects the immune system, and they provide evidence for density-dependent prophylaxis of larval L. sticticalis against its biocontrol agents. These results have implications for understanding the population dynamics and biocontrol of beet webworm.

Comments

This article is from International Journal of Pest Management 59 (2013): 174, doi:10.1080/09670874.2013.807957.

Rights

Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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