Journal or Book Title
Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
The production of swine, cattle, and poultry raised for human consumption represents a significant portion of the U.S. agricultural economy. To maximize production, livestock producers regularly use pharmaceuticals and hormones as supplements in animal feed and water to increase rates of weight gain, and prevent or treat diseases among their livestock. For example, in swine it is estimated that antibiotics are used for disease prevention and growth promotion in more than 90% of starter feeds, 75% of grower feeds, 50% of finishing feeds, and 20% of sow feeds. Equally relevant numbers are seen in beef cattle production (1-4). It has been well documented that measurable quantities of pharmaceuticals are excreted, often in original form, in feces and urine of livestock. Livestock waste, containing pharmaceuticals and hormones, is often used as fertilizer for farm fields or pastures and may result in nonpoint source pollution of ground or surface waters (5). Field
American Chemical Society
Hendersn, Keri L. D. and Coats, Joel R., "Veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment: an introduction" (2009). Entomology Publications. 346.