Campus Units

Entomology

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date

12-20-2009

Journal or Book Title

Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Volume

1018

Issue

2

First Page

3

Last Page

7

DOI

10.1021/bk-2009-1018.ch002

Abstract

The production of swine, cattle, and poultry raised for human consumption represents a significant portion of the U.S. agricultural economy. To maximize production, livestock producers regularly use pharmaceuticals and hormones as supplements in animal feed and water to increase rates of weight gain, and prevent or treat diseases among their livestock. For example, in swine it is estimated that antibiotics are used for disease prevention and growth promotion in more than 90% of starter feeds, 75% of grower feeds, 50% of finishing feeds, and 20% of sow feeds. Equally relevant numbers are seen in beef cattle production (1-4). It has been well documented that measurable quantities of pharmaceuticals are excreted, often in original form, in feces and urine of livestock. Livestock waste, containing pharmaceuticals and hormones, is often used as fertilizer for farm fields or pastures and may result in nonpoint source pollution of ground or surface waters (5). Field

Comments

Reprinted (adapted) with permission from Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, 1018(2); 3-7. Doi: 10.1021/bk-2009-1018.ch002. 2009 American Chemical Society.

Copyright Owner

American Chemical Society

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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