Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2007

Journal or Book Title

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Volume

55

Issue

18

First Page

7314

Last Page

7322

DOI

10.1021/jf063711a

Abstract

Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 at 10 μM. Cytotoxicity did not play a role in the noted reduction of PGE2production in either the Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified individual alkamides present at concentrations below 2.8 μM in the extracts from the six Echinacea species (15 μg/mL crude extract). Because active extracts contained 2, it is likely that alkamides may contribute toward the anti-inflammatory activity of Echinacea in a synergistic or additive manner.

Comments

Posted with permission from Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, no. 18 (2007): 7314–7322, doi:10.1021/jf063711a. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.

Copyright Owner

American Chemical Society

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf