Campus Units

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology

Document Type

Article

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date

2008

Journal or Book Title

PloS ONE

Volume

3

Issue

6

First Page

e2272

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0002272

Abstract

A cis-acting RNA regulatory element, the Rev-responsive element (RRE), has essential roles in replication of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and equine infection anemia virus (EIAV). The RRE binds the viral trans-acting regulatory protein, Rev, to mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport of incompletely spliced mRNAs encoding viral structural genes and genomic RNA. Because of its potential as a clinical target, RRE-Rev interactions have been well studied in HIV-1; however, detailed molecular structures of Rev-RRE complexes in other lentiviruses are still lacking. In this study, we investigate the secondary structure of the EIAV RRE and interrogate regulatory protein-RNA interactions in EIAV Rev-RRE complexes. Computational prediction and detailed chemical probing and footprinting experiments were used to determine the RNA secondary structure of EIAV RRE-1, a 555 nt region that provides RRE function in vivo. Chemical probing experiments confirmed the presence of several predicted loop and stem-loop structures, which are conserved among 140 EIAV sequence variants. Footprinting experiments revealed that Rev binding induces significant structural rearrangement in two conserved domains characterized by stable stem-loop structures. Rev binding region-1 (RBR-1) corresponds to a genetically-defined Rev binding region that overlaps exon 1 of the EIAV rev gene and contains an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE). RBR-2, characterized for the first time in this study, is required for high affinity binding of EIAV Rev to the RRE. RBR-2 contains an RNA structural motif that is also found within the high affinity Rev binding site in HIV-1 (stem-loop IIB), and within or near mapped RRE regions of four additional lentiviruses. The powerful integration of computational and experimental approaches in this study has generated a validated RNA secondary structure for the EIAV RRE and provided provocative evidence that high affinity Rev binding sites of HIV-1 and EIAV share a conserved RNA structural motif. The presence of this motif in phylogenetically divergent lentiviruses suggests that it may play a role in highly conserved interactions that could be targeted in novel anti-lentiviral therapies.

Comments

This article is from PloS ONE 3 (2008): e2272, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002272. Posted with permission.

Rights

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Copyright Owner

Lee et al.

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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