Iowa State University Veterinarian Records, RS 22/6/0/9, University Archives, Special Collections Department, Iowa State University, http://www.add.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/arch/rgrp/22-6-0-9.html
Ectopic ureters are characterized as terminating outside the urinary bladder as a result of faulty differentiation of the Wolffian ducts. The condition can be unilateral or bilateral, and is almost always seen in the female dog.
Slindee, Char and Mitten, Russell
"Ectopic Ureter - A Case Report,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 37
, Article 5.
Available at: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol37/iss1/5