Iowa State University Veterinarian Records, RS 22/6/0/9, University Archives, Special Collections Department, Iowa State University, http://www.add.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/arch/rgrp/22-6-0-9.html
Acute gastric dilation in the canine is a primary condition which may be followed by gastric volvulus or even gastric rupture, When gastric volvulus occurs, it causes splenic rotation and often torsion of the splenic pedicle. The gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) syndrome which must always be considered a true emergency.
Grauer, Gregory F. and DeYoung, Donald W.
"Gastric Dilation and Volvulus in the Dog,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 40
, Article 5.
Available at: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol40/iss1/5