Document Type

Article

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date

3-2004

Journal or Book Title

Journal of Virology

Volume

78

Issue

6

First Page

3072

Last Page

3082

DOI

10.1128/JVI.78.6.3072-3082.2004

Abstract

Satellite RNAs usurp the replication machinery of their helper viruses, even though they bear little or no sequence similarity to the helper virus RNA. In Cereal yellow dwarf polerovirus serotype RPV (CYDV-RPV), the 322-nucleotide satellite RNA (satRPV RNA) accumulates to high levels in the presence of the CYDV-RPV helper virus. Rolling circle replication generates multimeric satRPV RNAs that self-cleave via a doublehammerhead ribozyme structure. Alternative folding inhibits formation of a hammerhead in monomeric satRPV RNA. Here we determine helper virus requirements and the effects of mutations and deletions in satRPV RNA on its replication in oat cells. Using in vivo selection of a satRPV RNA pool randomized at specific bases, we found that disruption of the base pairing necessary to form the non-self-cleaving conformation reduced satRPV RNA accumulation. Unlike other satellite RNAs, both the plus and minus strands proved to be equally infectious. Accordingly, very similar essential replication structures were identified in each strand. A different region is required only for encapsidation. The CYDV-RPV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (open reading frames 1 and 2), when expressed from the nonhelper Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus, was capable of replicating satRPV RNA. Thus, the helper virus’s polymerase is the sole determinant of the ability of a virus to replicate a rolling circle satellite RNA. We present a framework for functional domains in satRPV RNA with three types of function: (i) conformational control elements comprising an RNA switch, (ii) self-functional elements (hammerhead ribozymes), and (iii) cis-acting elements that interact with viral proteins.

Comments

This article is from Journal of Virology 78 (2004): 3072, doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.6.3072-3082.2004. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

American Society for Microbiology

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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