Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
Journal or Book Title
Journal of Food Research
Demands for seafood products are steadily increasing. Alternative protein sources are required to compensate for enormous amounts of fishmeal that is needed for global seafood production. Starch is a food polymer that can be added to fish feed formulations to enhance binding and expanding capabilities of extrudates. Floatability, a key factor for most aqua feeds, can be optimized by the addition of certain starch sources. Six ingredient blends with a similar protein content (~32.5%) containing two starch sources, Hylon VII (containing 70% amylose, 30% amylopectin) or Waxy I (containing 0% amylose, 100% amylopectin), 20% distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), and 15, 25, and 35% moisture content were used along with appropriate amounts of soybean meal, menhaden fishmeal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to investigate nutritionally-balanced feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The blends were processed using a laboratory single-screw extruder with varying temperature settings (90-90-90°C, 100-120-120°C, and 100-120-140°C), screw speeds (100, 120, and 140 rpm), and length/diameter ratio (3.4, 6.6, 9.2) of the die. Extensive analyses of expansion ratio (ER), unit density (UD), sinking velocity (SV), and pellet durability indices (PDI), water absorption (WAI) and water solubility indices (WSI) were conducted to evaluate the effects of the two starch sources on extrudate binding and floating capacity. By varying process conditions, significant differences (P>0.05) among the blends were detected for all extrudate physical properties. Significantly higher values for ER, UD, and PDI were achieved by using the Waxy I starch source, while values for SV and WAI decreased. For WSI no significant differences were detected. Increasing the moisture content from 15-35% resulted in a significant increase in ER, WAI, and PDI and a significant decrease in UD. WSI showed no clear pattern in changes. The impact of different amylopectin to amylose ratio, temperature and moisture content on extrudate stability, cohesion and physical properties was demonstrated in this study. All formulations yielded viable extrudates while the blends with the amylopectin as the sole source of starch resulted in higher quality extrudates.
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Kurt A. Rosentrater
Ayadi, Ferouz Y.; Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Muthukumarappan, K.; and Kannadhason, S., "Effects of Amylose-To-Amylopectin Ratios on Binding Capacity of DDGS/Soy-Based Aquafeed Blends" (2016). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications. 767.