Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Campus Units

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Toxicology

Document Type


Publication Version

Accepted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Waste Management





First Page


Last Page


Research Focus Area(s)

Animal Production Systems Engineering




Emergency mortality composting associated with a disease outbreak has special requirements to reduce the risks of pathogen survival and disease transmission. The most important requirements are to cover mortalities with biosecure barriers and avoid turning compost piles until the pathogens are inactivated. Temperature is the most commonly used parameter for assessing success of a biosecure composting process, but a decline in compost core temperature does not necessarily signify completion of the degradation process. In this study, gas concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced inside biosecure swine mortality composting units filled with six different cover/plant materials were monitored to test the state and completion of the process. Among the 55 compounds identified, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and pyrimidine were found to be marker compounds of the process. Temperature at the end of eight weeks was not found as an indicator of swine carcass degradation. However, gas concentrations of the marker compounds at the end of eight weeks were found to be related to carcass degradation. The highest gas concentrations of the marker compounds were measured for the test units with the lowest degradation (highest respiration rates). Dimethyl disulfide was found to be the most robust marker compound as it was detected from all composting units in the eighth week of the trial. Concentration of dimethyl disulfide decreased from a range of 290–4340 ppmv to 6–160 ppbv. Dimethyl trisulfide concentrations decreased to a range of below detection limit to 430 ppbv while pyrimidine concentrations decreased to a range of below detection limit to 13 ppbv.


This is a manuscript of an article published as Akdeniz, Neslihan, Jacek A. Koziel, Hee-Kwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, and Benjamin P. Crawford. "Field scale evaluation of volatile organic compound production inside biosecure swine mortality composts." Waste Management 30, no. 10 (2010): 1981-1988. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.05.022. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

Elsevier Ltd.



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Published Version