Campus Units

Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE)

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Version

Accepted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0




Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is seen as families of mature inspection methodologies which have benefited from major advances in technology, sensor manipulation, and data analysis in the past 20 years, including new types and materials for sensors, and most importantly, leveraging advances in computers for data capture, processing, and modeling. Life management approaches which use such data have also evolved and condition based maintenance (CBM) is now routinely applied to many active components (e.g., pumps, valves, and rotating machines), with in some cases the use of algorithms (prognostics) that estimate remaining useful life (URL). The same period has seen deployment of structural health monitoring (SHM) but, at a slower rate of development, when applied to passive components in high-tech industries including aerospace, wind turbines, and nuclear (e.g., airframe, blades, pressure vessels, and concrete). New approaches to prognostics are now offering emerging opportunities for deployment, bring together more traditional NDE data and that given by SHM, for passive structures, using a common metrics concept, integrated with using technology that utilize new sensors, wireless data transmission, robotic deployments, and advanced data processing, including artificial intelligence (AI). As new approaches to RUL determination, including more big data, become available for prognostic analysis, there are potentially opportunities to operate within the framework of the internet of things (IoT) and what is becoming known as NDE 4.0.


This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of a chapter published as Bond L.J. (2021) "From Nondestructive Testing to Prognostics: Revisited." In: Meyendorf N., Ida N., Singh R., Vrana J. (eds) Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0. Springer, Cham. The final authenticated version is available online at DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-48200-8_34-1. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

Springer Nature Switzerland AG



File Format


Available for download on Saturday, June 11, 2022

Published Version