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Field experiments, conducted from 1991 to 1994, generated information on weed seedbank emergence for 22 site-years from Ohio to Colorado and Minnesota to Missouri. Early spring seedbank densities were estimated through direct extraction of viable seeds from soil cores. Emerged seedlings were recorded periodically, as were daily values for air and soil temperature, and precipitation. Percentages of weed seedbanks that emerged as seedlings were calculated from seedbank and seedling data for each species, and relationships between seedbank emergence and microclimatic variables were sought. Fifteen species were found in 3 or more site-years. Average emergence percentages (and coefficients of variation) of these species were as follows: giant foxtail, 31.2 (84%); velvetleaf, 28.2 (66); kochia, 25.7 (79); Pennsylvania smartweed, 25.1 (65); common purslane, 15.4 (135); common ragweed, 15.0 (110); green foxtail, 8.5 (72); wild proso millet, 6.6 (104); hairy nightshade, 5.2 (62); common sunflower, 5.0 (26); yellow foxtail, 3.4 (67); pigweed species, 3.3 (103); common lambsquarters, 2.7 (111); wild buckwheat, 2.5 (63), and prostrate knotweed, 0.6 (79). Variation among site-years, for some species, could be attributed to microclimate variables thought to induce secondary dormancy in spring. For example, total seasonal emergence percentage of giant foxtail was related positively to the 1st date at which average daily soil temperature at 5 to 10 cm soil depth reached 16 C. Thus, if soil warmed before mid April, secondary dormancy was induced and few seedlings emerged, whereas many seedlings emerged if soil remained cool until June.
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Forcella, Frank; Wilson, Robert G.; Kremer, Robert J.; Cardina, John; Anderson, Randy L.; Alm, David; Renner, Karen A.; Harvey, Robert G.; Clay, Sharon; and Buhler, Douglas D., "Weed Seed Bank Emergence across the Corn Belt" (1997). Agronomy Publications. 12.