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Improved agronomic management strategies are needed to minimize the impact that current maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production practices have on soil erosion and nutrient losses, especially nitrogen (N). Interseeded cover crops in standing maize and soybean scavenge excess soil N and thus reduce potential N leaching and runoff. The objectives were to determine the impact that pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) (PC), winter camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) (WC), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) (WR) cover crops have on soil N, and carbon (C) and N accumulation in cover-crop biomass. The cover crops were interseeded in maize at the R5 growth stage and in soybean at R7 in four replicates over two growing seasons at four locations. Soil and aboveground biomass samples were taken in autumn and spring. Data from the maize and soybean systems were analyzed separately. The results showed that cover crops had no effect on soil NH4+-N under both systems. However, winter rye decreased soil NO3−-N up to 76% compared with no-cover-crop treatment in the soybean system. Pennycress and WC scavenged less soil N than WR. Similarly, N and C accumulation in PC and WC biomass were less than in WR, in part because of their poor growth performance under the interseeding practice. Until PC and WC varieties with improved suitability for interseeding are developed, other agronomic practices may need to be explored for improving N scavenging in maize and soybean cropping systems to reduce nutrient leaching and enhance crop diversification.
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Mohammed, Yesuf Assen; Patel, Swetabh; Matthees, Heather L.; Lenssen, Andrew W.; Johnson, Burton L.; Wells, M. Scott; Forcella, Frank; Berti, Marisol T.; and Gesch, Russ W., "Soil Nitrogen in Response to Interseeded Cover Crops in Maize–Soybean Production Systems" (2020). Agronomy Publications. 682.