The white pine blister rust is a destructive disease of five needle pines. It is caused by a parasite fungus and like some other rusts, it requires two distinct host plants in order to complete its life cycle. These are first, the five needle pines and second, the cultivated and •wild currants and gooseberries.
Baker, C. J.
"White Pine Blister Rust,"
Ames Forester: Vol. 6
, Article 13.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/amesforester/vol6/iss1/13