Low Temperature Physics
The article reviews the rich phenomena of physical properties of MnBi. The diverse phenomena include strong spin-orbit interaction, anomalous temperature dependence of the coercivity and the magneto-crystalline anisotropy field, unique magneto-optical properties. Issues addressed include the nature of the electronic ground states of MnBi, the electronic and magnetic structures, Fermi surface, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, x-ray magnetic dichroism. The discussion includes key experiments, such as optical and magneto-optical spectroscopic measurements, de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) measurements, x-ray photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements as well as x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The effect of the spin-orbit (SO) interaction and Coulomb repulsion U were found to be crucial for the Fermi surface, cyclotron masses, magneto-optical properties, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The microscopic origin of unique magneto-crystalline anisotropy and giant Kerr effect in MnBi is analyzed in detail. The huge Kerr effect in MnBi is caused by the combination of a sizable magnetic moment on manganese, the large spin-orbit coupling of bismuth, and a strong hybridization between the manganese 3d and the bismuth 6p states. The magneto-optically active states are mainly the 6p states of Bi. We show that the observed temperature dependence of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy can be explained taking into account the spin-orbit interaction together with strong Coulomb electron-electron interaction. The SO coupling of Bi is equally responsible for the large magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy as is the exchange splitting of Mn. The fabrication, morphology, and constitution of low-temperature MnBi alloys in bulk, thin films, and nanoparticles are discussed. The nanocomposite permanent magnetic materials based on MnBi, (Co, Fe) and Nd2Fe14B are also discussed.
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Iowa State University Digital Repository, Ames IA (United States)