Deep eutectic solvents in separations: Methods of preparation, polarity, and applications in extractions and capillary electrochromatography
Ames Laboratory; Chemistry
Ames Laboratory, Chemistry
Journal of Chromatography A
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as alternatives to conventional organic solvents and ionic liquids (ILs). Their tunable and designer physio-chemical properties, low cost, and ease of preparation make them attractive solvent systems for use in extractions and additives to chromatographic separations. However, due to the diverse range of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors that comprise DESs, choosing the appropriate solvent for separations can be challenging. This review discusses all methods of DES preparation and details their advantages and disadvantages. Since polarity is an important aspect in their use in separations, the classification of DESs based on the betaine dye and nile red scales as well as Kamlet-Taft parameters is also discussed. Finally, a summary of applications of DESs in various extraction processes (phenolics, fuels, metals, proteins, carbohydrates), solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, as well as capillary electrochromatography is provided.
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