Ames Laboratory; Materials Science and Engineering
Ames Laboratory, Materials Science and Engineering
The particle-like magnetic skyrmion or skyrmion lattice (SkX) formation has promoted strong application and fundamental science interests. Despite extensive research, the kinetic of the SkX development is much less understood because of the ultrafast spin rotation and high sensitivity to external perturbations. Here, using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we successfully measured the dynamics of SkX formation from the conical phase with precise control of both the temperature and the magnetic field. We discovered that the Avrami equation can accurately describe the transition process with an initial Avrami constant around 1, suggesting that the rate-limiting step for the quasiparticle lattice formation is one-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation of individual skyrmions. A modified Arrhenius rate law is established, with an energy barrier that has a square-root dependence on temperature and a quadratic dependence on the magnetic field. This study paves the way toward precise and predictable manipulation of topological spin structures.
Iowa State University Digital Repository, Ames IA (United States)
Available for download on Wednesday, June 29, 2022