Summary and Implications
Data on ammonia (NH3) emissions from pullets (pre-laying hens) are non-existent, despite the large differences in nutritional and environmental conditions between raising pullets and laying hens. Different stocking densities (SD’s) in housing the birds may be used as a result of certain industry animal welfare guidelines. The objectives of this study were to determine NH3 emission rate (ER) of pullets during the growth period (4-18 wk of age), and to assess the effect of SD on NH3 ER of pullets and laying hens during a 6-d manure accumulation time (MAT).
Data to date showed that there was no significant SD effect on NH3 ER in mg/pullet or mg/kg N intake; however, SD significantly affected NH3 ER in mg/kg manure, with the HD leading to higher NH3 ER per kg manure mainly after 3-d MAT. The results from this study help set a foundation for further field-scale measurement of NH3 emissions, and ultimately development of best management practices to effectively reduce NH3 emissions from egg production operations.
Iowa State University
Mendes, Luciano B.; Xin, Hongwei; and Li, Hong
"Ammonia Emissions of Pullets and Effects of Stocking Density,"
Animal Industry Report:
AS 656, ASL R2527.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/ans_air/vol656/iss1/48