Journal or Book Title
Genetics Selection Evolution
Genetic variation due to non-nuclear DNA has been generally ignored by animal breeders. Recent evidence has confirmed that mitochondrial inheritance is predominantly of maternal origin in mammals. Advances in biotechnology make manipulation of non-nuclear and nuclear material in embryos likely in the future. Estimation of the relative importance of direct, matemal and mitochondrial genetic variation would help in assessing the value of these new technologies. Expectations of causal components of variance from previously used mating and crossfostering designs are modified to include variation due to mitochondrial (cytoplasmic) material. The efficiencies of the designs are compared, as well as the statistical consequences of adding the mitochondrial component to the original models. The designs presented have limitations due to possible confounding of maternal, grand-maternal and mitochondrial effects and to their being not adequate for all animal species and traits. However techniques such as embryo transfer can circumvent those difficulties. Possibilities of using improved designs clearly depend on biotechnological advances and on the cost of implementing those new techniques.
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Rothschild, Max F. and Ollivier, L., "Expectation of variance due to mitochondrial genes from several mating designs" (1987). Animal Science Publications. 320.