Journal or Book Title
Ensuring safety and quality in the production of beef Volume 1 : Safety
Contamination of animal carcasses during slaughtering procedures is undesirable, but unavoidable in the conversion of live animals to meat for consumption. Internal muscle tissues are essentially sterile, and most initial contamination of red meat carcasses is contributed by the hide during removal (Elmonssalami and Wassef, 1971; Gill and Penny, 1979; Gill et al., 1976). The exposed surface of the hide and the hair accumulate dust, dirt and faecal material, and this is the primary source of bacterial contamination during slaughter (Ayres, 1955; Shotts et al., 1961). The factors that affect the extent of this contamination are reviewed by Patterson (1969) and Grau et al. (1968). Much of the microflora transferred to the tissue surfaces, while aesthetically undesirable, is nonpathogenic; however, pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and pathogenic Escherichia coli can be present.
Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited
Dickson, James S. and Acuff, Gary R., "Maintaining the safety and quality of beef carcass meat" (2017). Animal Science Publications. 354.