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As a major infectious disease in chickens, Newcastle disease causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries where there is limited access to effective vaccination. Therefore, enhancing resistance to the virus in commercial chickens through breeding is a promising way to promote poultry production. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes at 2 and 6 dpi after infection at day21 with a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in a commercial egg-laying chicken hybrid using RNA sequencing analysis. By comparing NDV challenged and nonchallenged groups, 526 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) were identified at 2 dpi, and only 36 at 6 dpi. For the DEGs at 2 dpi, IPA analysis predicted inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in response to NDV that regulate immune cell development and activity, neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Upregulation of Interferon Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) in response to NDV was consistent between the current and most previous studies. Sprouty RTK Signaling Antagonist 1 (SPRY1), a DEG in the current study is located in a significant QTL associated with virus load at 6 dpi in the same population. These identified pathways and DEGs provide potential targets to further study breeding strategy to enhance NDV resistance in chickens.
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Zhang, Jibin; Kaiser, Michael G.; Gallardo, Rodrigo A.; Kelly, Terra R.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Zhou, Huaijun; and Lamont, Susan J., "Transcriptome analysis reveals inhibitory effects of lentogenic Newcastle disease virus on cell survival and immune function in spleen of commercial layer chicks" (2020). Animal Science Publications. 549.