Hjalmar S. Kühl, Max Planck Institute
Ammie K. Kalan, Max Planck Institute
Mimi Arandjelovic, Max Planck Institute
Floris Aubert, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Lucy D'Auvergne, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Annemarie Goedmakers, Chimbo Foundation
Sorrel Jones, Max Planck Institute
Laura Kehoe, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Sebastien Regnaut, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Alexander Tickle, Max Planck Institute
Els Ton, Max Planck Institute
Joost van Schijndel, Max Planck Institute
Ekwoge E. Abwe, Ebo Forest Research Project
Samuel Angedakin, Max Planck Institute
Anthony Agbor, Max Planck Institute
Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Max Planck Institute
Emma Bailey, Max Planck Institute
Mattia Besone, Max Planck Institute
Matthieu Bonnet, The Aspinall Foundation
Gregory Brazolla, Max Planck Institute
Walentine Ebua Buh, Max Planck Institute
Rebecca Chancellor, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Chloe Cipoletta, Wildlife Conservation Society
Heather Cohen, Max Planck Institute
Katherine Corogenes, Max Planck Institute
Charlotte Coupland, Max Planck Institute
Bryan Curran, The Aspinall Foundation
Tobias Deschner, Max Planck Institute
Karsten Dierks, Max Planck Institute
Paula Dieguez, Max Planck Institute
Emmanuel Dilambaka, Wildlife Conservation Society
Orume Diotoh, Korup Rainforest Conservation Society
Dervla Dowd, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Andrew Dunn, Wildlife Conservation Society
Henk Eshuis, Max Planck Institute
Rumen Fernandez, Max Planck Institute
Yisa Ginath, Max Planck Institute
John Hart, Lukuru Foundation
Daniella Hedwig, The Aspinall Foundation
Martjin Ter Heegde, World Wide Fund for Nature
Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Max Planck Institute
Inaoyom Imong, Max Planck Institute
Kathryn J. Jeffrey, University of Stirling
Jessica Junker, Max Planck Institute
Parag Kadam, University of Cambridge
Mohamed Kambi, Max Planck Institute
Ivonne Kienast, Max Planck Institute
Deo Kujirakwinja, Wildlife Conservation Society
Kevin Langergraber, Arizona State University
Vincent Lapeyre, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Juan Lapuente, Max Planck Institute
Kevin Lee, Max Planck Institute
Vera Leinert, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Amelia Meier, Max Planck Institute
Giovanna Maretti, Max Planck Institute
Sergio Marrocoli, Max Planck Institute
Tanyi Julius Mbi, Max Planck Institute
Vianet Mihindou, Agence National des Parcs Nationaux
Yasmin Moebius, Max Planck Institute
David Morgan, Wildlife Conservation Society
Bethan Morgan, Ebo Forest Research Project
Felix Mulindahabi, Wildlife Conservation Society
Mizuki Murai, Max Planck Institute
Protais Niyigabae, Wildlife Conservation Society
Emma Normand, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Nicholas Ntare, Wildlife Conservation Society
Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Max Planck Institute
Alex Piel, Liverpool John Moores University
Jill D. Pruetz, Iowa State UniversityFollow
Aaron Rundus, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Crickette Sanz, Washington University in St. Louis
Volker Sommer, University College of London
Fiona Stewart, University of Cambridge
Nikki Tagg, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
Hildi Vanleeuwe, Wildlife Conservation Society
Virginie Vergnes, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
Jacob Willie, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
Roman M. Wittig, Max Planck Institute
Klaus Zuberbuehle, Université de Neuchâtel
Christophe Boesch, Max Planck Institute

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Scientific Reports



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The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.


This is an article from Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 22219, doi:10.1038/srep22219. Posted with permission.


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