Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Roy J. Carver Department of
Journal or Book Title
Journal of Biological Chemistry
A comprehensive description of starch biosynthesis and granule assembly remains undefined despite the central nature of starch as an energy storage molecule in plants and as a fundamental calorie source for many animals. Multiple theories regarding the starch synthase (SS)-catalyzed assembly of (α1–4)-linked D-glucose molecules into maltodextrins generally agree that elongation occurs at the non-reducing terminus based on the degradation of radiolabeled maltodextrins, although recent reports challenge this hypothesis. Surprisingly, a direct analysis of the SS catalytic product has not been reported, to our knowledge. We expressed and characterized recombinant Zea mays SSIIa and prepared pure ADP-[13CU]glucose in a one-pot enzymatic synthesis to address the polarity of maltodextrin chain elongation. We synthesized maltoheptaose (degree of polymerization 7) using ADP-[13CU]glucose, maltohexaose (degree of polymerization 6), and SSIIa. Product analysis by ESI-MS revealed that the [13CU]glucose unit was added to the non-reducing end of the growing chain, and SSIIa demonstrated a >7,850-fold preference for addition to the non-reducing end versus the reducing end. Independent analysis of [13CU]glucose added to maltohexaose by SSIIa using solution NMR spectroscopy confirmed the polarity of maltodextrin chain elongation.
The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Larson, Mark E.; Falconer, Daniel J.; Myers, Alan M.; and Barb, Adam W., "Direct Characterization of the Maize Starch Synthase IIa Product Shows Maltodextrin Elongation Occurs at the Non-reducing End" (2016). Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications. 204.