Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Genome Informatics Facility, Office of Biotechnology
Journal or Book Title
Heterodera glycines, commonly referred to as the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is an obligatory and sedentary plant parasite that causes over a billion-dollar yield loss to soybean production annually. Although there are genetic determinants that render soybean plants resistant to certain nematode genotypes, resistant soybean cultivars are increasingly ineffective because their multi-year usage has selected for virulent H. glycines populations. The parasitic success of H. glycines relies on the comprehensive re-engineering of an infection site into a syncytium, as well as the long-term suppression of host defense to ensure syncytial viability. At the forefront of these complex molecular interactions are effectors, the proteins secreted by H. glycines into host root tissues. The mechanisms of effector acquisition, diversification, and selection need to be understood before effective control strategies can be developed, but the lack of an annotated genome has been a major roadblock. Here, we use PacBio long-read technology to assemble a H. glycines genome of 738 contigs into 123Mb with annotations for 29,769 genes. The genome contains significant numbers of repeats (34%), tandem duplicates (18.7Mb), and horizontal gene transfer events (151 genes). Using previously published effector sequences, the newly generated H. glycines genome, and comparisons to other nematode genomes, we investigate the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the emergence and diversification of effector genes.
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Masonbrink, Rick E.; Maier, Thomas R.; Muppirala, Usha; Seetharam, Arun S.; Lord, Etienne; Juvale, Parijat S.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Johnson, Nathan T.; Korkin, Dmitry; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Mimee, Benjamin; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Hudson, Matthew; Severin, Andrew J.; and Baum, Thomas J., "The genome of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) reveals complex patterns of duplications involved in the evolution of parasitism genes" (2018). Office of Biotechnology Publications. 2.