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Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Veterinary Pathology, Genome Informatics Facility, Office of Biotechnology, Plant Pathology and Microbiology

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Scientific Reports



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Beet cyst nematodes depend on a set of secretory proteins (effectors) for the induction and maintenance of their syncytial feeding sites in plant roots. In order to understand the relationship between the beet cyst nematode H. schachtii and its host, identification of H. schachtii effectors is crucial and to this end, we sequenced a whole animal pre-infective J2-stage transcriptome in addition to pre- and post-infective J2 gland cell transcriptome using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and identified a subset of sequences representing putative effectors. Comparison between the transcriptome of H. schachtii and previously reported related cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes revealed a subset of esophageal gland related sequences and putative effectors in common across the tested species. Structural and functional annotation of H. schachtii transcriptome led to the identification of nearly 200 putative effectors. Six putative effector expressions were quantified using qPCR and three of them were functionally analyzed using RNAi. Phenotyping of the RNAi nematodes indicated that all tested genes decrease the level of nematodes pathogenicity and/or the average female size, thereby regulating cyst nematode parasitism. These discoveries contribute to further understanding of the cyst nematode parasitism.


This article is published as Elashry, Abdelnaser M., Samer S. Habash, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Nahal Brocke-Ahmadinejad, Roman Blümel, Arun Seetharam, Heiko Schoof, and Florian MW Grundler. "Transcriptome and Parasitome Analysis of Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii." Scientific Reports 10 (2020): 3315. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60186-0. Posted with permission.

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