Journal or Book Title
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
This minireview explores mitochondria as a site for antibiotic-host interactions that lead to pathophysiologic responses manifested as nonantibacterial side effects. Mitochondrion-based side effects are possibly related to the notion that these organelles are archaic bacterial ancestors or commandeered remnants that have co-evolved in eukaryotic cells; thus, this minireview focuses on mitochondrial damage that may be analogous to the antibacterial effects of the drugs. Special attention is devoted to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones and their respective single side effects related to mitochondrial disturbances. Linezolid/oxazolidinone multisystemic toxicity is also discussed. Aminoglycosides and oxazolidinones are inhibitors of bacterial ribosomes, and some of their side effects appear to be based on direct inhibition of mitochondrial ribosomes. Chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones target bacterial ribosomes and gyrases/topoisomerases, respectively, both of which are present in mitochondria. However, the side effects of chloramphenicol and the fluoroquinolones appear to be based on idiosyncratic damage to host mitochondria. Nonetheless, it appears that mitochondrion-associated side effects are a potential aspect of antibiotics whose targets are shared by prokaryotes and mitochondria—an important consideration for future drug design.
American Society for Microbiology
Barnhill, Alison E.; Brewer, Matt T.; and Carlson, Steve A., "Adverse Effects of Antimicrobials via Predictable or Idiosyncratic Inhibition of Host Mitochondrial Components" (2012). Biomedical Sciences Publications. 32.