Journal or Book Title
Several optical tests were employed to demonstrate twinning in raphides from 10 species in the family Vitaceae and one species in the Araceae. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that twin raphides differ from the reported shape of twin styloids and that raphides of the Vitaceae are "barbed" along two sides. A model is proposed to describe in vivo raphide production under saturated to supersaturated conditions of directional nutrient flow.
The University of Chicago
Cody, A. M. and Horner, Harry T., "Twin Raphides in the Vitaceae and Araceae and a Model for Their Growth" (1983). Botany Publication and Papers. 54.