The first and most essential requirement is to teach the patrons how to take care of the milk. Everything about the dairy that the milk comes in contact with should be of tin. The milk should be thoroughly cooled and aereated immediately after it is drawn from the cow to prevent souring. In winter it should be kept in a cool room. In summer it should be set in cold water until the collector calls for it. The delivery cans should be washed out with warm water in which some sal soda has been dissolved, then scalded and rinsed in cold water, and placed out of doors to air. The milk should not be allowed to stand in these cans as it will sour more rapidly than in the common setting cans, but should be poured in just before sending to the creamery. The collector should live at the farther end of the route and start early enough to deliver the milk to the creamery by 9 o’ clock. The milk should not be allowed to freeze in winter, as it imparts a bitter taste to the butter, nor warm up in the summer above 75 degrees. Every collector should be provided with blankets to protect the milk in winter. By wetting the blankets in cold water in the summer and spreading over the cans they will keep the milk cool while on the road. The butter maker should examine every can separately to ascertain the condition of the milk before allowing it to be emptied into the weigh can, and if any defective milk is found it should be returned to the patron. One can of poor milk will injure a whole vat of good milk. In winter the milk should be partly warmed up in the receiving vat, and finished in the heating vat, as it will be easier to control the temperature that way. The milk should be at a temperature of 80 degrees never above when ready for separating. Regulate the cream outlet on the separator to take out nothing but the cream; for the thicker the cream the better the butter and less loss of butter fat in the butter milk. The skim milk should be tested every day to ascertain if the separators are doing good work; if they are not, decrease the feed and increase the speed until there is a perfect separation. The cream should be immediately cooled after separating. In winter the cooling can be done in the tempering vat, but in the summer it can be cooled to better advantage by using a cream cooler. In winter, if the milk is separated every day, the cream should be allowed to stand forty-eight hours at a temperature of 60 degrees, but if separated every other day it can be ripened in twenty-four hours, if one gallon of butter milk to one hundred gallons of cream is used as a starter.



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