Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Burton C. English; Raymond J. Schatzer; Roland K. Roberts; and Earl O. Heady
Late in 1979, the Russians mounted an offensive in Afghanistan. This action was perceived as a direct threat to U.S. security by the President of the United States. A course of nonmilitary response to this threat was planned. One component of this plan, announced on January 4, 1980, I called for an embargo of high-technology goods and all agricultural commodities except the quantities of corn and wheat agreed to by previous treaty.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Raymond J. Schatzer; Roland K. Roberts; and Earl O. Heady
American farming has undergone many changes in its structure and composition over the last three decades. During much of this period the supply of farm products was large, causing depressed farm prices and income. The quantity and mix of different inputs changed as new technologies were made available to and were adopted by farmers. Relative prices and technologies favorable to capital use caused increased production, low prices, low farm incomes, and hence a reduction in the farn population during much of the period.
Regional impacts of groundwater mining from the Ogallala Aquifer with increasing energy prices 1990 and 2000
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Cameron C. Short; Anthony F. Turhollow Jr.; Earl O. Heady; and Kun C. Lee
The Ogallala is an unconfined fresh-water aquifer extending from just north of the Nebraska-South Dakota border to the southern edge of the Texas High Plains. The areal extent of the aquifer includes the eastern tier of counties in Colorado and New Mexico, the western third of Kansas, three counties in Oklahoma, the greater part of the state of Nebraska and the Texas "panhandle." The area assumed to overlie the aquifer adjusted to county lines is shown in Figure 1! Discontinuous segments of the Ogallala Aquifer have also been identified in other areas such as central Kansas and south-eastern Colorado and Wyoming. The aquifer may also stretch into counties adjoining the study area; the northern edge of the aquifer, for example, is actually located in South Dakota but the aquifer is of minor economic significance in these regions.
A separable programming analysis of U.S. agricultural export, price and income, and soil conservation policies in 1985
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; William G. Boggess; and Earl O. Heady
The United States has long implemented supply control programs to reduce output and raise farm prices and incomes. The first supply control programs were created more than 45 years ago by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of l933. The nation also has long had a concern for conserving the land. In more recent times, the public has become concerned with maintaining and improving the environment. Soil conservation legislation dates from 1936 with passage of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. Supply control, soil conservation, and environmental programs generally have not been coordinated. Each program has been formulated to deal with a specific problem rather than addressing the "whole" of this set of agricultural policy needs. The potential for comprehensive policy formulation exists though, and the possible complementarities could significantly increase the efficiency of national agricultural policy in general. This study examines the possibility of managing land to simultaneously reduce output and conserve the soil. It analyzes interregional impacts of different supply control and soil conservation programs on income generation, resource use, program costs, and other associated variables.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; David R. Daines Jr.; and Earl O. Heady
Agricultural soil erosion concerns many people in the United States. The depletion of topsoil and formation of gullies reduce the productivity of farmland, and farm family income, foreign trade income, and food production potential are threatened. Much of the soil eroded from farmland is carried by runoff water into the streams and reservoirs where it contributes to undesirable and even harmful environmental problems. These include reduced capacity of streams and reservoirs to supply water as well as increased flood danger, navigation obstacles, and water pollution with its many consequences.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Mark R. Drabenstott; and Earl O. Heady
This study hopes to provide sound, well-documented information on what current economic and farm trends mean for the survival of the small family farm. In addition, this research addresses some of the issues at the center of the dialogue on farm structure. By so doing, this study may contribute some helpful answers to these important farm structure questions.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Burton C. English; and Earl O. Heady
Environmental impacts created by population growth and economic development are major concerns of today's society. Increasing population necessitates increased and intensified production. As the world's standard of living increases, spurred by economic development, demands for agricultural commodities increase. These increases in demand result in expansion of agricultural production. This expansion requires changes in means of production, technology advancement, and increased education, all of which may result in changes in the environment. It is an aspect of these changes that is examined in this report. More specifically, this study analyzes impacts that occur under both a short and long-term planning horizon when attempts to control soil loss might be made.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Burton C. English; Cameron C. Short; Earl O. Heady; and Steven K. Johnson
This study examines the economic feasibility of using Iowa's crop residues to generate electricity. Iowa was chosen because of the high crop residue densities and the dispersed nature of Iowa's power plants. If the use of crop residue is not economically feasible in Iowa, then it is likely that it will not be feasible elsewhere.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Wen-yuan Huang; Reuben N. Weisz; and Earl O. Heady
The U.S. Government plays an important role in national and regional agricultural production. The government uses production control programs, price supports, and loans to increase and stabilize national farm commodity prices and invests in research, development, and extension to promote national production. It has invested in various development projects, such as irrigation, to promote regional agricultural production or regulates land use to avoid permanent depletion of resources.
An analysis of selected agricultural policy impacts on the U.S. livestock sector by an econometric simulation model
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Roland K. Roberts; and Earl O. Heady
This study interfaces a U.S. livestock econometric model with a crop market econometric model and analyzes the impacts upon the livestock sector of various grain and livestock policy alternatives. The livestock model, which was developed at the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) by Roberts and Heady, consists of five livestock and poultry commodities: beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and turkey. The crop market model is an updated and revised version of the market sector of the CARD National Agricultural Simulation Model. The crop market model is composed of feed grain, wheat, soybean, and cotton submodels.
Supply control and U.S. agriculture: an analysis of national and regional impacts under land and fertilizer restrictions
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University and Stanley A. Schraufnagel
In 1973 the demand for United States farm commodities was at a record level. Stocks of grain, which had been built up over a number of years, were rapidly depleted by several factors including world demand, export subsidies, and devaluation of the dollar. In response to this abnormal situation, The Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 was enacted. This act, contrary to past legislation, emphasized the maintenance or increase of production. But the 1972 to 1974 per capita decline in world food production was shortlived, and output slowly returned to more normal levels. The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 reflected this return by replacing the ''fence row to fence row" policies of the 1973 legislation with supply controls once again.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; George H.K. Wang; and Earl O. Heady
Quantitative knowledge of factors affecting the demand and supply of farm labor is important in analyzing problems of farm income, the supply of farm products and labor mobility and adjustments. The empirical results of this study, based on recent time series data, hopefully can increase quantitative knowledge about market relationships for family farm labor and hired farm labor.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University and Joseph C. Campbell
This study focuses on the interaction of U.S. agricultural exports, regional patterns of farm production, and the problem of agricultural sediment. It also evaluates alternative policies in abating sedimentation of the nation's main river basins. One underlying hypothesis of the study is that changes in agricultural export demands cause shifts in the comparative advantage among producing regions within the United States and alter regional land use patterns, farm incomes, consumer food prices, and soil loss. Given this hypothesis, the study uses a mathematical model and two estimates of the U.S. 1985 agricultural exports to investigate if and how these interactions occur.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Ashok Chowdhury; and Earl O. Heady
Historically, the U.S. farm sector has been a leader in meeting the challenges of the world's growing food demand. American farmers produced an impressive 24 percent of the total world food and feed grains in 1977. They also contributed 53.6 percent of total world exports of these farm commodities in the same year. This achievement was possible through a combination of past governmental policies and technological developments. In the beginning cheap land and other inexpensive inputs encouraged farmers to increase agricultural production by expanding the use of these inputs. Gradually, technological innovations and mechanization of agriculture accelerated its growth and productivity, creating a large capacity for agricultural production. Table 1 shows the indices of farm output, input, and productivity in the United States from 1910 to 1977. Output increased by 181 percent whereas input use increased by only 17 percent, resulting in a 140 percent increase in productivity during the 1910- 1977 period.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Doeke C. Faber; and Earl O. Heady
The world has become increasingly concerned with problems of health, population control, food production, and economic development. Organizations of the United Nations (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], International Labor Organization [ILO], World Health Organization [WHO], United Nations Economic Social and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], United Nations Development Program [UNDP]) have channeled a large amount of talent and finance into these areas in an attempt to improve conditions under which present and future generations live. Similarly, development organizations of individual nations and organizations such as the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the international research institutes also are making large contributions to solving food problems of developing countries.
Volume of grain and fertilizer requiring transportation: projections to 1984-1985 and 1989-1990 by counties in Iowa
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; John J. Miller; C. Phillip Baumel; Robert N. Wisner; and Thomas E. Fenton
Iowa's grain and fertilizer transportation and distribution systems are undergoing major changes. Some rail lines are being upgraded; others are being abandoned. Major grain elevator expansions have been completed at some locations, and other grain and fertilizer facility expansions are being considered. Information on both the volume of grain likely to be moved out of Iowa counties and on the required in shipments of fertilizer in future years is needed to guide decisions on grain and fertilizer transportation and distribution facility expansion, relocation, or abandonment.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Roland K. Roberts; and Earl O. Heady
Government grain policies of the early 1970s which returned U.S. agriculture to a free market situation are an example of the ignored condition of the livestock and poultry sector in policy formulation. An element of uncertainty not known for many years was reintroduced under the extreme fluctuations in grain prices in the free market. Feed prices began to increase as reserves of grains were depleted through high levels of exports. Not only were profit margins in livestock production reduced but also feed prices became highly volatile after many years of stabilizing government programs. The government no longer had vast grain stocks to cushion the effects of weather and other stochastic events.
Energy use in U.S. agriculture: an evaluation of national and regional impacts from alternative energy policies
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Dan Dvoskin; Earl O. Heady; and Burton C. English
Modern agriculture depends heavily on fossil fuel energy to power its machinery, to pump irrigation water, to produce fertilizers, and for many other uses. Further increases in energy prices will have important impacts on U.S. agriculture. Energy intensive irrigated farming will suffer most severely. But as energy prices continue to increase, other types of farming will also be affected.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Craig V. Fulton; Earl O. Heady; and George E. Ayres
This study examined farm machinery costs in relation to machinery and farm size in central Iowa. The objectives of the study were: (a) to calculate costs for individual machines for constant and varying economic conditions; (b) to determine machinery combination costs, value of yield losses, and combined costs for two different restrictions on the number of suitable field days.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; James A. Gibson; and John F. Timmons
Any land use planning activity requires an information support system. Land use legislation enacted in Iowa in 1977 requires capability in inventorying, analyzing and projecting land uses (87). This legislation provides for the development of a state land use policy from recommendations generated by county and state land preservation commissions. These recommendations involve consideration of current land uses and projections of land needed for the various land uses in the future. Proposed federal land use legislation requires states to develop their future U.S. land use needs. Both H.R. 10294 and S. 984 introduced in the U.S. Congress in 1974 and 1975, respectively, included provisions for states to develop a land use planning process with federal assistance. This planning process included inventories of land resources and projections of land needed and suitable for various types of uses to meet future national, state, and local needs.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Woo Koo; William G. Boggess; and Earl O. Heady
Environmental concerns and technological changes are closely interrelated factors in agricultural production. Technical innovations in the form of improved farming practices and new and more intensive applications of chemical inputs have resulted in an upward trend in grain yields. However, the increased usage of chemical inputs such as fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides may also be significant sources of pollution. Other environmental concerns such as soil loss and the disposal of livestock wastes affect agricultural production capabilities and may degrade soil and water quality. In addition, weather variability causes significant year-to-year fluctuations in_grain yields around trend levels and is one of the most important sources of uncertainty in future grain supplies.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Donald O. Mitchell; and Earl O. Heady
Exports have become a major share of U.S. agricultural markets in recent years. They brought great profits to agriculture in the period 1973- 76. Agricultural products accounted for 23 percent of the value of total U.S. exports in 1974 (Table 1). Exports of agricultural commodities increased 297 percent from 1970 to 1974 while chemicals, the commodity group with the second largest growth, increased 232 percent.
Effects of beef feeding practices and conservation farming systems on the interregional pattern of crop and beef production
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Gary F. Vocke; and Earl O. Heady
Beef cattle convert grass from U.S. rangelands and aftermath from crops into usable protein that otherwise would be unavailable for human consumption. They also are fed large quantities of grain in the United States. Intensive use of grain in the beef feeding industry results from the nation's large supplies and low real prices of feed grains.
Economics and the environment: impacts of erosion restraints on crop production in the Iowa river basin
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Klaus F. Alt; and Earl O. Heady
This study was sponsored cooperatively by the Natural Resource Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development at Iowa State University. Some data are taken from a previous cooperative study of the Iowa-Cedar Rivers Basin conducted by several agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. We are indebted to the Iowa-Cedar Rivers Basin Field Advisory Committee for making these data available. Specific thanks go to Paul Rosenberry and colleagues in the Natural Resource Economics Division. Our thanks also go to Wilson T. Moon, Bill Brune, Bob Boyce, Ed Burr, Russell Knutson, and the members of the River Basin Party of the Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Des Moines.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Gerald A. Harrison; and Earl O. Heady
Following the depression of the early 1930's the federal government provided legislation and administrative initiative, along with treasury outlays, for various agricultural commodity programs. These programs retained the same general format through 1970. Virtually all of these programs were responses to the symptoms of problems faced by the agricultural industry.
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