Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Gerald A. Harrison; and Earl O. Heady
Following the depression of the early 1930's the federal government provided legislation and administrative initiative, along with treasury outlays, for various agricultural commodity programs. These programs retained the same general format through 1970. Virtually all of these programs were responses to the symptoms of problems faced by the agricultural industry.
Estimated impacts of two environmental alternatives in agriculture: a quadratic programming analysis
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Kent D. Olson; Earl O. Heady; Carl C. Chen; and Anton D. Meister
This is one of several Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) studies that pertain to land and water use and environmental policy. Previous studies have emphasized soil loss control (Nicol, Heady, and Madsen, 1974), environmental enhancement and export levels (Meister, Heady, Nicol, and Strohbehn, 1976), sedimentation limits (Wade and Heady, 1976), and impacts when land use policies are applied in one state but not nationally (Nagadevara, Heady, and Nicol, 1975). The foregoing studies have been made with a range of linear programming models. The purpose of this study is to evaluate impacts for 1980 of two potential environmental controls; this evaluation is made by an interregional quadratic programming model.
A multigoal linear programming analysis of trade-offs between production efficiency and soil loss control in U.S. agriculture
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Orhan Saygideger; Gary F. Vocke; and Earl O. Heady
Topsoil exposed to rainfall when crops are produced on sloping land creates a major environmental problem in the United States. Runoff and the resulting soil erosion carries sediment and agricultural chemicals into public waterways. Besides polluting the waterways, the process also reduces soil productivity. Even with conservation efforts, including the creation of soil conservation  and land use laws regulating soil and water conservation, erosion of agricultural topsoil remains a problem and will likely require new and integrated policies set by national agencies.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Theodore D. Thorton; and Earl O. Heady
This report describes patterns of physician utilization as they existed in the North Central region of the United States in 1970. The physician use patterns of various social groups are examined to indicate the volume of physician visits for each group, how each group used specialists, and where each group made contact with doctors. Particular attention is given to the patterns of use in rural areas.
Economic impacts on U.S. agriculture from insecticide, fertilizer, soil loss, and animal waster regulatory policies
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Gary F. Vocke; Earl O. Heady; William G. Boggess; and Harold J. Stockdale
Agriculture interacts in many ways with the environment. Practices such as crop rotations, tillage operations, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and confined livestock operations are used in producing food. But, these practices can also alter the environment via runoff, sediment, nutrients, and toxic chemicals. As with other industries, agriculture's impact on the environment has come under close scrutiny as resource use has become a concern of many Americans.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Yie-Land Chan; Earl O. Heady; and Steven T. Sonka
Agriculture has greatly contributed to and interacted with economic growth in the United States. Particular characteristics of this growth are development of advanced management systems, rapidly advancing technology which places a premium on change and furthers the mechanization process, and changes in the relative real prices of labor and capital. Collectively, these forces have led to development of larger and more highly capitalized farming systems. Both machine technology and the decline in the real cost of capital relative to labor encourage the substitution of capital technology for farm manpower. Under intensive capital technology, fixed costs ordinarily are larger and per unit costs of production are lower for larger farms than for smaller ones. Lower per unit costs result from expansion of farm size and greater specialization so that machine capacity can be more fully utilized.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; W. Arden Colette; Earl O. Heady; and Kenneth J. Nicol
During the past 15 years there has been increased pressure for a reallocation of water and a review of the system of water rights in the United States. In the Western States where water scarcity has long been a problem, population increases have expanded water requirements for urban and domestic uses. In the Eastern States contamination of lakes, rivers, and streams has brought about increased interest in pollution and water problems.
A programming model for analysis of nonmetropolitan hospital services systems and application of the model
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Marvin R. Duncan; and Earl O. Heady
This publication is written to meet the needs of two different audiences ··--health planners and health researchers. For health planners at county, multicounty, or state levels, it describes the use of a quantitative technique for analyzing a common problem how best to plan for the delivery of hospital services in a multicounty, nonmetropolitan setting. Most useful to the planner will be the study problem and objectives, nontechnical discussion of the research model and data needs, and the discussion of policy implications. The research method will be useful to the researcher regardless of whether he is employed by a university or a health planning agency. Of prime interest to him will be the application of the modeling technique in the analysis of a practical problem. Careful reading of this publication will enable a researcher who has appropriate training in quantitative methods and some familiarity with health planning to apply the described analytical technique to a similar problem setting. The model is operational with modest data requirements and is relatively inexpensive to use. Ideally, cooperation between a health planner and an economist skilled in quantitative methods and with access to computer capability is needed for maximum effectiveness in applying the modeling technique. Economists at most universities would have the required research skills and access to computer services.
U.S. agricultural production under limited energy supplies, high energy prices, and expanding agricultural exports
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Dan Dvoskin; and Earl O. Heady
This study evaluates changes that might come about in U.S. agriculture under energy shortages expressed in prices and supplies for energy. It analyzes shifts in production among regions and between irrigated and dry land agriculture if energy were limited in farming or if prices rose to higher levels. It also examines changes that could come about in cropping technology and crop mixes under these conditions. It evaluates changes in resource values and related quantities. Finally, it examines a pattern of agriculture consistent with minimizing the energy requirements of agriculture.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; R. A. Levins; M. D. Boehlje; J. A. Otte; and J. D. Libbin
In 1974, the Iowa Legislature appropriated $3 million to Iowa State University for the Energy and Mineral Resources Research Institute to conduct a coal research program. One of the goals of this program was to provide an economic analysis of the mining, restoration, refining, transportation, and use of Iowa coal.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Anton D. Meister; Earl O. Heady; Kenneth J. Nicol; and Roger W. Strohbehn
This report is based on the study completed in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service as a part of the 1975 National Water Assessment. The main objective of this part of the Assessment is to evaluate the nation's land and water resource capabilities relative to the future magnitude and trends of variables affecting agriculture and its domestic and international impacts under varying assumptions of technology and resource policy.
Interorganizational relations among development organizations: empirical assessment and implications for interrorganizational coordination
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; David L. Rogers; and Joseph J. Molnar
This report examines cooperative interaction among development organizations in 16 Iowa counties. Several sets of organizational characteristics were found to relate to levels of interorganizational relations (lOR). Organizations that were well-established, prestigious, and perceived as being effective tended to report the most intensive interaction with other units. The presence of formalized rules and procedures was associated with more intensive levels of lOR. Organizations with less autonomy in funding and programming reported higher levels of interaction than did the more autonomous groups. Innovative organizations with broad service responsibilities also reported more intensive interaction.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; James C. Wade; and Earl O. Heady
This report summarizes a portion of the research done under Grant GI-32990 from the RANN Program of the National Science Foundation. The research is a continuation of the development and application of models of agricultural production, resource use, and the environment. Previous research concentrated on the use of resources in agriculture and the development of models to determine the levels of potential environmental harm. This extension links the resource utilization and residue-creating production activities of cropland agriculture to the quality of water in the nation's streams. The polluting substance studied is sediment.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Shyamal Roy Chowdhury; Earl O. Heady; and Robert W. Crown
Industrialization is one means by which rural communities can realize greater employment and family incomes. It provides economic growth for rural areas when it more than offsets the reductions in farm employment that result from the ongoing mechanization and capitalization of agriculture. But in other cases rural industrialization may only slow down the rate at which a community is economically deteriorating. Though rural industrialization may contribute to rural development, it is by no means a cure-all.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Terry E. Crall; Earl O. Heady; and Craig V. Fulton
Iowa and other Corn Belt pork producers have become concerned about the potential of very large comnercial or "industrialized" hog operations growing out of economies of size (or cost advantages and scale economies for larger producers). The purpose of this study was to estimate empirically the economies of size associated with specialized nonintegrated swine enterprises in central Iowa. This information can then be used to judge the competitive position of different-sized hog operations in Iowa. Costs were budgeted for 10 levels of production from 25 to 1,000 sows. The prices used for the various items were those that existed in central Iowa in 1970. Three management systems were examined: the pasture, the open front confinement, and the environmentally controlled confinement systems. Each management system consisted of four phases: gestation, farrowing, growing, and finishing.
U.S. agricultural export capabilities under various price alternatives, regional production variations, and fertilizer-use restrictions
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Dan Dvoskin; and Earl O. Heady
Two major issues are causing concern about the future of the American agricultural sector, its interaction with the rest of the American economy, and the impacts on the consumer of the food and fiber products produced in agriculture. One of these concerns is the quality of the environment and restraints imposed on agriculture to improve it. Agriculture, the major user of land and water resources, contributes to environmental conditions through sedimentation, fertilizers, pesticides, and animal residues. The second issue is world hunger and demand for food and the potential for large increases in United States grain exports to assist in alleviating this hunger. Both of these developments, the imposition of environmental restraints on agriculture and larger exports of grains, can cause farm commodity prices to rise at the farm level and subsequently food costs to rise for domestic consumers. The World Food Conference held in Rome in 1974 emphasized the growing world concern for greater food output and trade in food commodities.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Jerry A. Fedeler; Earl O. Heady; and Won W. Koo
The grain industry in the United States has expanded rapidly since World War II. Concurrent with this expansion has been an increase in the demand for grain transportation services. There have been periods of excess demand for grain hauling equipment and grain handling facilities. This excess demand distorts the normal grain price-space relationships and results in the usual problems and inefficiencies which correspond to such distortions. Associated with the expansion of the grain distribution industry has been a greater degree of production specialization among farms, an expansion of the domestic waterways, the near completion of the Federal Interstate Highway System, difficult financial conditions for some railroads, and the partial abandonment of the railroad system. In 1973 the United States faced a new problem, an energy crisis, which brought about new problems for the transportation industry. The energy crisis was especially intense because all modes of transportation depend heavily on gasoline and diesel fuels which were in especially short supply because of the depletion of domestic oil supplies and restricted oil imports.
A world food analysis: grain supply and export capacity of American agriculture under various production and consumption alternatives
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Earl O. Heady; Doeke C. Faber; and Steven T. Sonka
Widespread starvation in countries such as India, Bangladesh, and those bordering the Sahelian desert, and rapidly rising retail food prices in the developed nations, have led to doubts about the ability of the world's agriculture to cope with present and future food needs. These events provide new support for the pessimistic Malthusian viewpoint that the world population will only be able to sustain itself if some major catastrophe occurs, such as widespread famine caused by "acts of God" or otherwise.
Implications of application of soil conservancy and environmental regulations in Iowa within a national framework
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Vishnuprasad Ssv. Nagadevara; Earl O. Heady; and Kenneth J. Nicol
Environmental quality has recently become a major concern of many Americans. Agriculture is a major industry causing considerable pollution and does so especially through runoff. The runoff carries with it phosphates, nitrates, pesticides, and other materials which become toxic in concentrated quantities. Agriculture also is a source of pollution through animal wastes and by-products of food processing. Through sedimentation from agricultural lands and leaching, residual chemicals are carried to the nation's major streams, rivers, and underground water bodies.
Relative contributions of major technological factors and moisture stress to increased grain yields in the Midwest, 1930-71
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Richard K. Perrin; and Earl O. Heady
Weather and its interactions with technology have important impacts on the economy of farms, households, and entire societies. These relationships were emphasized in the last three years when crop shortfalls in Russia were translated into mammoth export demands for U.S. grain. Similarly, poor weather and short commodity supplies further extended the grain demand for major exporting countries such as the United States. Great fluctuations in prices occurred, bringing large gains to some farmers and traders and large losses and costs to other farmers and consumers. Affected dramatically were areas in Asia and Africa where crop shortfalls resulted in starvation and death for thousands of people.
Alternative futures for American agricultural structure, policies, income, employment, and exports: a recursive simulation
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Thomas M. Reynolds; Earl O. Heady; and Donald O. Mitchell
American agriculture has undergone dramatic changes over the last few years. During the 1960s and early 1970s, it struggled along under surplus capacity relative to demand and prices that were not acceptable to farmers. Farm prices and income were supported by a complex of federal programs emphasizing direct payments for withholding land from production, nonrecourse commodity loans, and heavily subsidized international food aid. This situation of surplus capacity and depressed prices and incomes was quickly inverted, however, as poor weather and crop shortfalls in Eastern Europe and other world regions, along with changes in certain other variables, translated into a huge increase in demand for U.S. grain exports. This demand increment soon threaded through the agribusiness sector and rapidly translated into much higher farm prices and income, consumer food costs, and land values.
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Gerald E. Schluter; and Earl O. Heady
The major purpose of this study is to determine the interdependence (as expressed through a particular quantitative technique) in employment of the sectors that produce, process, and service the outputs from and the inputs to farming. The total agribusiness sector, encompassing all processes between the manufacturing of farm inputs to the retailing of food and fiber products, thus is considered the source of labor demand. Methods are applied to measure how a change in final demands for one sector of this agribusiness complex alters employment or labor demand in other sectors of the complex. The study also projects, subject to limitations of the method, how employment or labor demand may be distributed among sectors of the agribusiness complex in 1980.
Income and structure of American agriculture under future alternatives of farm size, policies and exports
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University; Steven T. Sonka; and Earl O. Heady
This study, made by means of a national and interregional programming model, examines the future of American agriculture. It examines policy alternatives and various outcomes for agriculture if the industry took on various structures in size and technology. In the latter connection it measures, in relation to policies and farm sizes which might prevail in the future, affects of farm commodity prices, returns in the farm sector, employment and input requirements of agriculture, capital needs of the industry, consumer food costs and generation of employment and income in the rural nonfarm sector.
Center for Agricultural and Economic Development, Iowa State University and Don F. Hadwiger
This manual attempts to bring a knowledge of various federal housing programs closer to the people the programs are intended to serve. It should be particularly helpful to the hundreds of amateurs--the citizen volunteers--who are helping to deliver better housing to low- and moderate income families in Iowa. Some federal housing programs rely mainly on citizen groups or private developers to make contact with eligible families and to create low-cost housing for them. In fact, several federal housing programs require citizen participation.
Center for Agricultural and Economic Development, Iowa State University; Daryll E. Ray; and Earl O. Heady
Historically, government price and income farm programs have been aimed at specific commodity groups. Each commodity program has its own price supports, target prices, acreage allotments, marketing quotas, or other instrumental variables. Within the framework of congressional legislation, program administrators annually announce the levels of these strategic variables for each commodity. The collection of variable levels for all programs represents one point in a set of possible combinations. The level of each government policy parameter or variable not only affects a particular commodity but also related agricultural commodities, the entire agricultural sector, and the economy as a whole.
Printing is not supported at the primary Gallery Thumbnail page. Please first navigate to a specific Image before printing.