To help pork processing firms evaluate the costs of pathogen-reducing interventions, Jensen and Unnevehr explore the various trade-offs associated with multiple pathogen reduction targets. They find that the costs of individual pathogen reduction technologies range from $0.03 to $0.20 per carcass for hogs, and the costs of optimal combinations of technologies may be as high a $0.47 per carcass. While these estimates represent less than 2 percent of packing costs, they are still considerably larger than initial FSIS estimates of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point systems (HACCP) costs to industry. Jensen and Unnevehr note, however, that improvements in food safety may be achieved through relatively modest investments in large plants.
Jensen, Helen H. and Unnevehr, Laurian J., "HACCP in Pork Processing: Costs and Benefits" (1999). CARD Working Papers. 259.