Granger Causality tests are run to examine the causal relationships between the trade deficit, another macroeconomic variable, and U.S. prices. The results show that strong causal relationships run from the trade deficit to agricultural prices but not to nonagricultural prices. Results of causality tests also indicate that the huge trade deficit is caused by a strong U.S. dollar.
Devadoss, S.; Meyers, William H.; and Johnson, Stanley R., "Exchange Rates, Trade Deficits, and U.S. Prices" (1986). CARD Working Papers. 44.