Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nanovaccine Institute
Research Focus Area
Health Care Technology and Biomedical Engineering
Journal or Book Title
Journal of Animal Science
Bovine anaplasmosis is the most prevalent tick-transmitted disease of cattle worldwide and a major obstacle to profitable beef production. Use of chlortetracycline-medicated feed to control active anaplasmosis infections during the vector season has raised concerns about the potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that may pose a risk to human health. Furthermore, the absence of effectiveness data for a commercially available, conditionally licensed anaplasmosis vaccine is a major impediment to implementing anaplasmosis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to develop a single-dose vaccine delivery platform to produce long-lasting protective immunity against anaplasmosis infections. Twelve Holstein steers, aged 11-12 weeks, were administered a novel 3-stage, single-dose vaccine against Anaplasma marginale (Am) major surface protein 1a. The vaccine consisted of a soluble vaccine administered subcutaneously (s.c.) for immune priming, a vaccine depot of a biodegradable polyanhydride rod with intermediate slow release of the vaccine for boosting immune response, and an immune-isolated vaccine platform for extended antigen release (VPEAR implant) deposited s.c. in the ear. Six calves were randomly assigned to two vaccine constructs (n=3) that featured rods and implants containing a combination of two different adjuvants, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Dextran and Quil-A (Group A). The remaining 6 calves were randomly assigned to two vaccine constructs (n=3) that featured rods and implants containing the same adjuvant (either DEAE-Dextran or Quil A) (Group B). Twenty one months post-implantation, calves were challenged intravenously with Am stabilate and were monitored weekly for signs of fever, decreased packed cell volume (PCV) and bacteremia. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects model and chi-squared tests (SAS v9.04.01, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Calves in Group A had higher PCV than calves in Group B (P = 0.006) at day 35 post-infection. Calves in Group A were less likely to require antibiotic intervention compared with calves in Group B (P = 0.014). Results indicate that calves exhibited diminished clinical signs of anaplasmosis when antigen was delivered with a combination of adjuvants as opposed to a single adjuvant. This demonstrates the feasibility of providing long lasting protection against clinical bovine anaplasmosis infections using a subcutaneous ear implant vaccine construct.
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Curtis, Andrew K.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Kleinhenz, Michael D.; Martin, Miriam S.; Skinner, Brandt; Kelly, Sean M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Reppert, Emily J.; Montgomery, Shawnee R.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Anantatat, Tippawan; Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; and Coetzee, Johann F., "Development of a subcutaneous ear implant to deliver an anaplasmosis vaccine to dairy steers" (2019). Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications. 405.