Document Type

Article

Research Focus Area

Advanced and Nanostructured Materials

Publication Date

2005

Journal or Book Title

Journal of the Electrochemical Society

Volume

152

Issue

5

First Page

C324

Last Page

C329

DOI

10.1149/1.1882112

Abstract

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is an important additive to electroplating baths used for the deposition of copper interconnects on semiconductor wafers. In an earlier paper, Yokoi et al. , Denki Kagaku oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku , 52 , 218 (1984) found a direct relationship between the deposition rate in the presence of PEG and chloride ions with the open-circuit potential measured after plating, suggesting that the rest potential reflects the chemical state of reactive copper ions within a surface polymer film. Here, these measurements were corroborated and then interpreted in terms of a proposed mechanism of copper deposition in the presence of PEG. In this mechanism, aqueous Cu2+ions are reduced to an intermediate complex at the PEG-Cu interface detected earlier by Raman spectroscopy [ Z. V. Feng et al. , J. Phys. Chem. B , 107 , 9415 (2003) ], in which Cu+ ions associate with adsorbed Cl− ions and ether oxygen ligands of PEG. The rest potential measurements are quantitatively explained on the basis of competition for these ligands at open circuit with Cu2+ ions absorbing from solution. The results indicate that deposition is mediated though ions partially solvated with the polymer, the concentration of which is controlled by the PEG concentration and molecular weight. PEG then behaves as a polymer electrolyte film as opposed to a passive barrier.

Comments

This article is from Journal of the Electrochemical Society 152 (2005): C324–C329, doi:10.1149/1.1882112. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

ECS—The Electrochemical Society

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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