Campus Units

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE)

Document Type

Conference Proceeding


Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2018

Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Proceedings of SPIE



First Page


Research Focus Area

Structural Engineering



Conference Title

SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring

Conference Date

March 4-8, 2018


Denver, CO


Distortion-induced fatigue cracks caused by differential deflections between adjacent girders are common issues for steel girder bridges built prior to the mid-1980s in the United States. Monitoring these fatigue cracks is essential to ensure bridge structural integrity. Despite various level of success of crack monitoring methods over the past decades, monitoring distortion-induced fatigue cracks is still challenging due to the complex structural joint layout and unpredictable crack propagation paths. Previously, the authors proposed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), a large-size flexible capacitive strain sensor, for monitoring in-plane fatigue cracks. The crack growth can be robustly identified by extracting the crack growth index (CGI) from the measured capacitance signals. In this study, the SECs are investigated for monitoring distortion-induced fatigue cracks. A dense array of SECs is proposed to monitor a large structural surface with fatigue-susceptible details. The effectiveness of this strategy has been verified through a fatigue test of a large-scale bridge girder to cross-frame connection model. By extracting CGIs from the SEC arrays, distortion-induced fatigue crack growth can be successfully monitored.


This proceeding is published as Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Hongki Jo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Simon Laflamme, "Dense capacitive sensor array for monitoring distortion-induced fatigue cracks in steel bridges," Proc. SPIE 10598, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2018, 105980Q (27 March 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2296592. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)



File Format



Article Location