Journal or Book Title
Analytica Chimica Acta
Ion concentration polarization focusing (ICPF) is an electrokinetic technique, in which analytes are enriched and separated along a localized electric field gradient in the presence of a counter flow. This field gradient is generated by depletion of ions of the background electrolyte at an ion permselective junction. In this tutorial review, we summarize the fundamental principles and experimental parameters that govern selective ion transport and the stability of the enriched analyte plug. We also examine faradaic ICP (fICP), in which local ion concentration is modulated viavia electrochemical reactions as an attractive alternative to ICP that achieves similar performance with a decrease in both power consumption and Joule heating. The tutorial covers important challenges to the broad application of ICPF including undesired pH gradients, low volumetric throughput, samples that induce biofouling or are highly conductive, and limited approaches to on- or off-chip analysis. Recent developments in the field that seek to address these challenges are reviewed along with new approaches to maximize enrichment, focus uncharged analytes, and achieve enrichment and separation in water-in-oil droplets. For new practitioners, we discuss practical aspects of ICPF, such as strategies for device design and fabrication and the relative advantages of several types of ion selective junctions and electrodes. Lastly, we summarize tips and tricks for tackling common experimental challenges in ICPF.
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Berzina, Beatrise and Anand, Robbyn, "Tutorial review: Enrichment and separation of neutral and charged species by ion concentration polarization focusing" (2020). Chemistry Publications. 1246.