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Analytical Chemistry




The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the advancements made in the field of bipolar electrochemistry over the past 2 years, with an emphasis on analysis. Bipolar electrodes (BPEs) are versatile, and in electroanalysis, they have been used extensively to screen electrocatalysts(1−4) and to sense biomarkers.(5−10) Their ability to modulate local electric fields lends them to the manipulation of cells and to the enrichment and separation of analytes.(11−17) Finally, by virtue of the polar and often graded profile of the interfacial potential across BPEs, they provide a platform for synthesis of Janus particles, useful as sensors and as microswimmers(18−22) and other materials with compositional gradients.(23,24) BPEs are particularly well-suited to analytical challenges that demand multiplexing or amenability to point-of-need (PON) application because even large arrays of BPEs can be controlled with simple equipment yet yield quantitative information about a system. In this review, we discuss recent progress in reactions that transduce current to a visible signal, sensing mechanisms, bipolar electrochemical cell design, integration of bipolar electrochemistry with spectroscopic techniques, BPEs at the nanoscale, and the application of BPEs to electrokinetics and materials preparation. Throughout the discussion, we identify promising trends, innovative directions, and remaining challenges in the field.


This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in Analytical Chemistry, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04524. Posted with permission.

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American Chemical Society



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