Journal or Book Title
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Efflux pumps are vital bacterial components, and research has demonstrated that some plant compounds such as pheophorbide a (php) possess efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activity. This study determined the quantity of php present in feces as an indicator of EPI activity. Feces were collected from different species of animals fed a variety of feeds. The chlorophyll metabolites php and pyropheophorbide a (pyp) were determined using fluorescense spectroscopy. The average concentrations [μg/g dry matter (DM) feces] of pyp/php in feces were as follows: guinea pig, 180; goat, 150; rabbit, 150; dairy cow, 120; feedlot cattle, 60; rat, <1; pig, <1; chicken, <1. These data indicate that animals consuming “green” diets will excrete feces with concentrations of php/pyp that exceed levels demonstrated to be inhibitory to bacterial efflux pumps (0.5 μg/mL). The natural presence EPIs in the gastrointestinal tract may modulate the activity of microbial efflux pumps and exert selection pressure upon resident microbial populations.
American Chemical Society
Barnes, Charles A.; Rasmussen, Sharon L.; Petrich, Jacob W.; and Rasmussen, Mark A., "Determination of the Concentration of Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitors, Pheophorbide a and Pyropheophorbide a, in the Feces of Animals by Fluorescence Spectroscopy" (2012). Chemistry Publications. 386.