5. Ultrasonic Transducers
We have investigated the spatial dependence of the longitudinal piezoelectric stress constant e of PVF2. Experiments were performed on a series of no.minally identical brass-backed PVF2 longitudinal wave transducers in water using commercial PVF2 film. Computer programs were designed to predict the performance of the transducers as a function of ezz (Z) , the thickness mode piezoelectric stress constant as a function of position Z through the thickness of the film. Our experiments indicate that the coupling coefficient is uniform across the film thickness. These computer programs were also used to model the insertion loss and bandwidth performance of the transducers. High voltage pulses were applied to PVF2 transducers to determine the region of linearity and to find the maximum nondestructive voltage that can be used. Transducers of this type were also made using PVF films fabricated in the Stanford Center for Materials Research using commercial resin, and found to pertorm as well as transducers using commercial film. Transducers of the above kind have also been used as bulk wave sources in wedge transducer assemblies for the production of surface acoustic waves on ceramic plates, and initial observations of reflections from surface cracks have been made.
Carome, E.; Fesler, K.; Shaw, H. J.; Weinstein, D. G.; and Zitelli, L. T., "PVF2 Transducers for NDT" (1980). Proceedings of the DARPA/AFML Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, July 1978–September 1979. 25.