Degree Type

Creative Component

Semester of Graduation

Spring 2020


Biomedical Sciences

First Major Professor

Suzanne Millman


Master of Science (MS)


Biomedical Sciences


Dairy calves are routinely disbudded during their first few weeks of life in order to prevent injuries and provide safety for their handlers. Disbudding is a procedure that removes the calves’ horn buds and activates nociceptors and causes acute pain and sometimes chronic pain. In order to mitigate pain, typically lidocaine or bupivacaine are used; however, their duration of analgesia lasts less than six hours. In order to alleviate chronic pain, a long-term local anesthetic must be used. Liposomal bupivacaine has shown in animals and humans to have a duration of analgesia ranging from 26 to 72 hours. To determine the onset and duration of anesthesia liposomal bupivacaine, calves were treated with lidocaine, bupivacaine, or liposomal bupivacaine in a double-blind experiment. One cohort of calves was tested prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, and the experiment is expected to resume when quarantine restrictions are lifted.

Copyright Owner

Gomez, Selena M.

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