Degree Type

Creative Component

Semester of Graduation

Fall 2020


Biomedical Sciences

First Major Professor

Alan Robertson


Master of Science (MS)


Biomedical Sciences


Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are derivatives of testosterone, which has physiological effects on sex drive and boosts muscle mass, enhancing athletic performance in men and women. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by athletes, bodybuilders, and powerlifters to improve their sportive performance. As a result, most competitive sports have banned AAS. Although, the use of synthetic derivatives has been challenging to establish allowable limits for testosterone in competition as the use of AAS has dynamically increased in both exercise and winning in competition. Testosterone may promote athletic performance, not only through its long-term anabolic actions but also through rapid behavioral effects. Studies have shown that testosterone has potent anabolic effects on the musculoskeletal system, including increased lean body mass, dose-related hypertrophy of muscle fibers, and increased muscle strength for athletes requiring speed and strength. Thus, making illegal steroids a powerful lure, despite the risk of negative side effects. However, severe side effects appear following prolonged use of AAS at a high dose, but their occurrence is limited. In the world of sports and competition, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids is frowned upon in the anti-doping community.

Copyright Owner

Castellanos, Isaiah

File Format


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